Early detection to prevent foot ulceration among type 2 diabetes mellitus patient: A multi-intervention review

Dewa Ayu Rismayanti
Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Nursalam Nursalam
Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Virgianti Nur Farida
Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Ni Wayan Suniya Dewi
Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Resti Utami
Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Arifal Aris
Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.

Ni Luh Putu Inca Buntari Agustini
Faculty of Nursing, Universitas Airlangga, Surabaya, East Java, Indonesia.


Foot ulceration is one of the biggest complications experienced by type 2 diabetes patients. The severity and prevention of new wounds can be overcome through early detection interventions. This systematic review aims to explain and provide a comparison of various interventions that have been developed to prevent the occurrence of Diabetes Foot Ulcers (DFU). We searched Scopus, Science Direct, PubMed, CINAHL, SAGE, and ProQuest for English, experimental studies, published between 2016-2021 that tested early detection for preventing diabetic foot ulcers in diabetic patients.

The Joanna Briggs Institute guidelines were used to assess eligibility, and PRISMA quality and a checklist to guide this review. 25 studies were obtained that matched the specified inclusion criteria. The entire article has an experimental study design. Majority of respondents were type 2 diabetes patients who have not experienced ulceration. Based on the results of the review, there were 3 main types of interventions used in the early detection of DFU.

The types of intervention used are 1) conventional intervention/physical assessment, 2) 3D thermal camera assessment system, and 3) DFU screening instrument. The three types of interventions have advantages and disadvantages, so their use needs to be adjusted to the conditions and needs of the patient. the development of DFU risk early detection intervention needs to be developed. Integration with modern technology can also be done to increase the accuracy of the results and the ease of examination procedures.



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