Factors associated with psychological distress among Myanmar residents during COVID-19 pandemic crises

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  • Roy Rillera Marzo
    Department of Community Medicine, International Medical School, Management and Science University, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Soe Soe Aye
    Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Asia Metropolitan University, JalanLembah, Bandar Seri Alam, Masai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Thein Win Naing
    Department of Public Health, Faculty of Medicine, Asia Metropolitan University, JalanLembah, Bandar Seri Alam, Masai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Thin Mon Kyaw
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Asia Metropolitan University, JalanLembah, Bandar Seri Alam, Masai, Johor, Malaysia. https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1548-1727
  • Myat Thida Win
    Department of Internal Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Asia Metropolitan University, JalanLembah, Bandar Seri Alam, Masai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Htoo Htoo Kyaw Soe
    Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Manipal University College Malaysia, Melaka, Malaysia.
  • Minn Soe
    Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Nursing and Biomedical Sciences, Malaysian Allied Health Sciences Academy University (MAHSA),Bandar SaujanaPurta, Selangor, Malaysia. https://orcid.org/0000-0002-1793-6011
  • Ye Wint Kyaw
    Department of Pathology, Faculty of Medicine, Asia Metropolitan University, JalanLembah, Bandar Seri Alam, Masai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Maung Maung Soe
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Asia Metropolitan University, JalanLembah, Bandar Seri Alam, Masai, Johor, Malaysia.
  • Nay Linn
    Department of Surgery, Faculty of Medicine, Asia Metropolitan University, JalanLembah, Bandar Seri Alam, Masai, Johor, Malaysia.


Background: COVID-19 pandemic reached a public health emergency status of international concern. The impacts and events associated with this were associated with adverse psychological impacts among the general public globally. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of psychological distress and to identify predictors associated with psychological distress due to the COVID-19 pandemic among the population in Myanmar.
Design and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from March to April 2020 among adults, 18 years old and above, who reside in Myanmar through a structured questionnaire distributed in social media platforms. Univariate and Bivariate analyses were used to estimate the prevalence of COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI) symptoms and to test the associations between CPDI and the exposure variables. Logistic Regression Analysis was done to identify significant predictors of distress.
Results: There were 530 participants in this study.37.4% of them did not have psychological distress,55.6% experienced mild to moderate psychological distress, and 7% experienced severe psychological distress due to COVID-19 pandemic. Simple and Multiple Logistic Regression Analyses were performed to determine the factors associated with psychological distress due to COVID-19.
Conclusions: It was shown that the self-employed group and age group older than 45 years old had more psychological distress than others. However, Buddhists and people from the capital city had less distress than other religions and districts. This study recommends the government to develop better strategies for self-employed groups, elders, and the poor for a support, relief, and resettlement of their ruined status.


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