The time pattern of selenomethionine administration in preventing free radicals due to exposure to electric cigarette smoke

Rivan Virlando Suryadinata
Faculty of Medicine, Universitas Surabaya (UBAYA), Surabaya , Indonesia.

Bambang Wirjatmadi
Faculty of Public Health, Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia.

Amelia Lorensia
Faculty of Pharmacy, Universitas Surabaya (UBAYA), Surabaya, Indonesia.


Background: Most people believe that electric cigarettes have no negative effect on health,  which causes them to use it more. However, exposure to the smoke from these cigarettes is bad for the health and causes cell damage. Antioxidants play an important role in preventing cell damage, and they can be obtained through the oral administration of selenomethionine.

Design and methods: This study used an experimental method and a post-test control group design. Male Wistar rats, which were exposed to cigarette smoke were given selenomethionine orally and then tested for the presence of free radicals. The measurement of lung tissue damage was conducted by assessing the level of malondialdehyde in the blood and immunohistochemistry (IHC) of the lung tissue.

Result: The study showed that differences in the time of administration of selenomethionine affect the levels of malondialdehyde in the blood and expression of malondialdehyde in the lung tissue (p<0.05). Consequently, the two groups showed a strong (r=0.861) and significant (p=0.000) relationship with each other.

Conclusion: The early application of selenomethionine can prevent increased levels of malondialdehyde in the blood and lung tissue due to exposure to e-cigarette smoke.


Delnevo CD, Giovenco DP, Steinberg MB, et al. Patterns of electronic cigarette use among adults in the United States. Nicotine Tob Res 2016;18:715-9. DOI:

Zhu S-H, Gamst A, Lee M, et al. The use and perception of electronic cigarettes and snus among the U.S. population. PLoS One 2013;24:e79332. DOI:

Zhuang Y-L, Cummins SE, Y Sun J, et al. Long-term e-cigarette use and smoking cessation: a longitudinal study with US population. Tob Control 2016;25:I90-5. DOI:

Rutten LJF, Blake KD, Agunwamba AA, et al. Use of e-cigarettes among current smokers: associations among reasons for use, quit intentions, and current tobacco use. Nicotine Tob Res 2015;17:1228-34. DOI:

Hua M, Talbot P. Potential health effects of electronic cigarettes: A systematic review of case reports. Prev Med Reports 2016;4:169-78. DOI:

Amrock SM, Lee L, Weitzman M. Perceptions of e-cigarettes and noncigarette tobacco products among US youth. Pediatrics 2016;138:e20154306. DOI:

Xu Y, Guo Y, Liu K, et al. E-cigarette awareness, Use, and harm perception among adults: A meta-Analysis of observational studies. PLoS One 2016;11:e0165938. DOI:

Goel R, Durand E, Trushin N, et al. Highly reactive free radicals in electronic cigarette aerosols. Chem Res Toxicol 2015;28:1675-7. DOI:

Phaniendra A, Jestadi DB, Periyasamy L. Free radicals: Properties, sources, targets, and their implication in various diseases. Indian J Clin Biochem 2015;30:11–26. DOI:

Suryadinata RV. Effect of free radicals on inflammatory process in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Amerta Nutr 2018;2:317–24. DOI:

Messner B, Bernhard D. Smoking and cardiovascular disease. Arterioscler Thromb Vasc Biol 2014;34:509–15. DOI:

Domej W, Oetll K, Renner W. Oxidative stress and free radicals in COPD – implications and relevance for treatment. Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis 2014;9:1207-24. DOI:

Suryadinata RV, Wirjatmadi B, Adriani M, et al. Effects of knowledge of vitamin D on attitudes toward sun exposure among middle-aged and elderly Indonesian adults. Indian J Public Heal Res Dev 2018;9:11-5. DOI:

Suryadinata RV, Wirjatmadi B, Adriani M, et al. The effects of exposure duration to electronic cigarette smoke on differences in superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde in blood of Wistar rats. Int J Curr Pharm Res 2019;11:13–6. DOI:

Zoidis E, Seremelis I, Kontopoulos N, et al. Selenium-dependent antioxidant enzymes: Actions and properties of selenoproteins. Antioxidants 2018;7:66. DOI:

Huang Z, Rose AH, Hoffmann PR. The role of selenium in inflammation and immunity: From molecular mechanisms to therapeutic opportunities. Antioxid Redox Signal 2012;16:705–43. DOI:

Baeza-Loya S, Viswanath H, Carter A, et al. Perceptions about e-cigarette safety may lead to e-smoking during pregnancy. Bull Menninger Clin 2014;78:243–52. DOI:

Choi K, Forster J. Characteristics associated with awareness, perceptions, and use of electronic nicotine delivery systems among young US midwestern adults. Am J Public Health 2013;103:556–61. DOI:

Ling PM, Glantz SA. Why and how the tobacco industry sells cigarettes to young adults: Evidence from industry documents. Am J Public Health 2002;92:908–16. DOI:

Crotty Alexander LE, Shin S, Hwang JH. Inflammatory diseases of the lung induced by conventional cigarette smoke. Chest 2015;148:1307–22. DOI:

Mons U, Muscat JE, Modesto J, et al. Effect of smoking reduction and cessation on the plasma levels of the oxidative stress biomarker glutathione – Post-hoc analysis of data from a smoking cessation trial. Free Radic Biol Med 2016;91:172–7. DOI:

Bitzer ZT, Goel R, Reilly SM, et al. Effects of solvent and temperature on free radical formation in electronic cigarette aerosols. Chem Res Toxicol 2018;31:4–12. DOI:

Pankow JF, Kim K, Luo Wm et al. Gas/particle partitioning constants of nicotine, selected toxicants, and flavor chemicals in solutions of 50/50 propylene glycol/glycerol as used in electronic cigarettes. Chem Res Toxicol 2018;31:985–90. DOI:

Hu J-P, Zhao X-P, Ma X-Z, et al. Effects of cigarette smoke on aerobic capacity and serum MDA content and SOD activity of animal. Int J Clin Exp Med 2014;7:4461–5.

Suryadinata RV, Wirjatmadi B. Selenium linked to increased antioxidant levels and decreased free radical in lung tissue of Wistar rats exposed to e-cigarette smoke. J Global Pharma Technol 2020;12:32-9.

Sedighi O, Zargari M, Varshi G. Effect of selenium supplementation on glutathione peroxidase enzyme activity in patients with chronic kidney disease: A randomized clinical trial. Nephrourol Mon 2014;4:6:e17945. DOI: