Presence of Leptospira sp. and leptospirosis risk factor analysis in Boyolali district, Indonesia

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  • Yuliani Setyaningsih
    Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.
  • Apoina KartiniF
    aculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.
  • Nurdin Bahtiar
    Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.
  • Apoina Kartini
    Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.
  • Siti Fatimah Pradigdo
    Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.
  • Lintang Saraswati
    Faculty of Public Health, Diponegoro University, Semarang, Indonesia.
    https://orcid.org/0000-0001-7975-9957

ABSTRACT

Background: Leptospirosis is a health problem that causes death in Indonesia. In 2017, Boyolali District was reported that the number of leptospirosis cases reached 40.62 per 100,000 population with a CFR of 23.52%. The determination of risk factors and Leptospira bacteria's presence in the body of water plays an essential role in the transmission of leptospirosis.

Design and methods
: This study aims to determine the risk factors and Leptospira bacteria's presence in water bodies in Boyolali District. This research is descriptive research with a survey method using a cross-sectional design and an analytical study using an observational method with a case-control approach. The sample was 100 water samples from wells, rivers, and paddy fields in endemic and non-endemic areas of leptospirosis. This study's population was 34 people with leptospirosis in Boyolali Regency in January 2017 – August 2018.

Results:
 There was a significant relationship between leptospirosis incidence in the Boyolali Regency with garbage, the pet presence, a history of injuries, and field activity. Leptospira bacteria are found in rivers (18.18%) and rice fields (6.67%), while in sub-districts with cases occur almost every year. Leptospira are found in wells (18.18%) and rice fields (6.67%).

Conclusions:
 People should pay more attention to home sanitation and the surrounding environment to avoid leptospirosis.

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