Journal of Public Health Research <p><strong>The Journal of Public Health Research</strong> is an online Open Access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal in the field of public health science. The aim of the journal is to stimulate debate and dissemination of knowledge in the public health field in order to improve efficacy, effectiveness and efficiency of public health interventions to improve health outcomes of populations. This aim can only be achieved by adopting a global and multidisciplinary approach. <br><br> <strong>The Journal of Public Health Research </strong>publishes contributions from both the 'traditional' disciplines of public health, including hygiene, epidemiology, health education, environmental health, occupational health, health policy, hospital management, health economics, law and ethics as well as from the area of new health care fields including social science, communication science, eHealth and mHealth philosophy, health technology assessment, genetics research implications, population-mental health, gender and disparity issues, global and migration-related themes. In support of this approach, the Journal of Public Health Research strongly encourages the use of real multidisciplinary approaches and analyses in the manuscripts submitted to the journal. In addition to <em>Original research</em>, <em>Systematic Review,</em> <em>Meta-analysis</em>, <em>Meta-synthesis</em> and <em>Perspectives</em> and <em>Debate</em> articles, the Journal of Public Health Research publishes newsworthy <em>Brief</em> <em>Reports</em>, <em>Letters</em> and <em>Study Protocols</em> related to public health and public health management activities.</p> en-US <p><strong>PAGEPress</strong> has chosen to apply the&nbsp;<a href="" target="_blank" rel="noopener"><strong>Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License</strong></a>&nbsp;(CC BY-NC 4.0) to all manuscripts to be published.<br><br> An Open Access Publication is one that meets the following two conditions:</p> <ol> <li class="show">the author(s) and copyright holder(s) grant(s) to all users a free, irrevocable, worldwide, perpetual right of access to, and a license to copy, use, distribute, transmit and display the work publicly and to make and distribute derivative works, in any digital medium for any responsible purpose, subject to proper attribution of authorship, as well as the right to make small numbers of printed copies for their personal use.</li> <li class="show">a complete version of the work and all supplemental materials, including a copy of the permission as stated above, in a suitable standard electronic format is deposited immediately upon initial publication in at least one online repository that is supported by an academic institution, scholarly society, government agency, or other well-established organization that seeks to enable open access, unrestricted distribution, interoperability, and long-term archiving.</li> </ol> <p>Authors who publish with this journal agree to the following terms:</p> <ol> <li class="show">Authors retain copyright and grant the journal right of first publication with the work simultaneously licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution License that allows others to share the work with an acknowledgement of the work's authorship and initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are able to enter into separate, additional contractual arrangements for the non-exclusive distribution of the journal's published version of the work (e.g., post it to an institutional repository or publish it in a book), with an acknowledgement of its initial publication in this journal.</li> <li class="show">Authors are permitted and encouraged to post their work online (e.g., in institutional repositories or on their website) prior to and during the submission process, as it can lead to productive exchanges, as well as earlier and greater citation of published work.</li> </ol> (Emanuela Fusinato) (Tiziano Taccini) Thu, 05 Sep 2019 09:17:06 +0200 OJS 60 The importance of financial recession for mental health among students: short- and long-term analyses from an ecosocial perspective <p><em>Background and aim:</em> Referring to the ecosocial theory and utilising the ‘natural experiment’ setting provided by the global recession at the beginning of 1990s, the aim of our study was to analyse the short- and long-term associations between trade and mental health in young students followed until mid-adulthood. <br><em>Method:</em> The study was based on two prospective cohort studies, the older and the younger Northern Swedish Cohort which both consisted of all pupils in a middle-sized industrial town in Northern Sweden. At age 21, the younger cohort entered the labour market during the deep recession of the early 1990s, while the older cohort entered the labour market during the boom of the 1980s. Both cohorts were followed up with a high response rate in mid adulthood. For this study, all students were selected at age 21. <br><em>Results:</em> At age 21, those who studied during recession had more depressive and functional somatic symptoms than those who studied during boom. The cohort differences did not remain over age: by the follow-up in early middle age the differences between the cohorts were non-significant, most notably due to decreased depressive symptoms in the younger cohort and increase of functional somatic symptoms in the older cohort. <br><em>Conclusions:</em> The short-term mental health consequences of the business cycle seem to be more extensive than limited only to those who are unemployed, even though the possible long-term consequences seem to be more complex. Thus, the macrolevel had a great short-term impact on the individual level in relation to the microlevel setting of university/school. The chronosystem was also of major importance. Future research would benefit from taking the context into account.</p> Anne Hammarström, Pekka Virtanen ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 16 Sep 2019 11:21:47 +0200 Online media scans: Applying systematic review techniques to assess statewide human papillomavirus vaccination activities <p><em>Background.</em> Although the human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been approved for use in adolescents in the US for over a decade, vaccination uptake remains low. Of concern, HPV vaccine coverage is below the national average in Minnesota, USA. To understand the reach of current HPV programming and research, we use an online media scan; this method may be applied to other jurisdictions to gain insight about various public health issues.<br><em>Design and Methods.</em> This online media scan describes the nature and scope of ongoing activities to increase HPV vaccination in Minnesota. The media scan included: a) structured internet searches of HPV vaccine health education/promotion activities ongoing in Minnesota since 2013, and b) searches in research databases of the published literature on HPV vaccination in Minnesota from 2013 to 2018. <br><em>Results.</em> Searches resulted in 880 online and 142 research article matches, with 40 and 36 meeting selection criteria. Results were categorized by activities focusing on race/ethnicity, sex, health providers, parents, lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender and queer or questioning (LGBTQ) populations, geographic location, catchup vaccination, and insurance status. Most activities were statewide (52% health education/promotion and 35% research), followed by activities located in entirely urban areas (15% health education/promotion and 41% research) with only 6% of health education/promotion activities and 2% of research activities carried out in entirely rural <em>areas.</em><br><em>Conclusions.</em> A range of local and statewide HPV vaccine health education/promotion and research activities were identified in Minnesota. Several efforts partnered with American Indian and Somali/Somali-American communities, but fewer activities focused on HPV vaccination among LGBTQ youth and HPV vaccination in rural areas.</p> Emily Ann Groene, Inari Mohammed, Keith Horvath, Nicole E. Basta, Nicholas Yared, Shalini Kulasingam ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Sep 2019 10:18:32 +0200 Six shades of grey: Identifying drinking culture and potentially risky drinking behaviour in the grey zone between work and leisure. The WIRUS culture study <p><em>Objectives:</em> The aim of this study was to explore drinking culture and drinking situations that employers and employees encounter in the grey zone between work and leisure, and identify what might affect employees’ risky drinking behaviour. <br><em>Methods:</em> We used eight focus groups to interview 61 core company informants from eight Norwegian companies (private and public sector) participating in the WIRUS – Workplace-based interventions preventing risky alcohol use and sick leave – project. The informants represented employers and employees with a diversity of roles at multiple organisational levels. The transcribed interviews were analysed by applying a phenomenological hermeneutical approach. <br><em>Results:</em> The analysis revealed six dimensions of drinking culture representing potentially risky drinking behaviour in situations that fall in the grey zone between work and leisure: (1) “Who invited me?” (Degree of obligation towards inviter), (2) “Do I have to participate?” (Degree of participation volunteerism), (3) “To drink or not to drink?” (Degree of drinking volunteerism), (4) “Work talk or small talk?” (Degree of work-related conversation), (5) “Are there any drinking rules to follow?” (Degree of regulation), and (6) “The influence of being away from home” (degree of distance to home). <br><em>Conclusions:</em> The findings reveal that employers and employees’ experience of drinking culture can be categorised as six different “shades of grey”. The grey zone is shaded from light to dark grey, indicating how risky the informants perceive the grey zone to be. The findings may be useful when designing workplace health promotion programmes and alcohol regulations in the workplace.</p> Hildegunn Sagvaag, Silje Lill Rimstad, Liv Grethe Kinn, Randi Wågø Aas ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Sep 2019 09:34:23 +0200 In utero exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals, micro-RNA profiles, and fetal growth: a pilot study protocol <p><em>Background:</em> The developing fetus is particularly vulnerable to the effects of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Molecular fingerprints of EDCs can be identified via microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles and may be etiologically implicated in the developmental origin of disease (DOHaD). <br><em>Methods/design</em>: This pilot study includes pregnant women at high risk (smoking at conception), and low risk (non-smoking at conception) for SGA birth (birthweight&lt;10th percentile for gestational age). We have randomly selected 12 mothers (3 high-risk SGA birth, 3 low-risk SGA birth, 3 high-risk non-SGA birth, 3 low-risk non-SGA birth), with EDC measurements from gestational week 17. All offspring are female. We aim to test the stability of our samples (maternal serum, cord blood, placenta tissue), observe the differential expression of miRNA profiles over time (gestational weeks 17, 25, 33, 37, birth), and study the consistency between maternal EDC measures and miRNA expression profiles across our repeated measures. <br><em>Expected impact of the study for Public Health:</em> Results from this pilot study will inform the development of a larger cohort wide analysis, and will impact the current state of knowledge in the fields of public health, epigenetics, and the DOHaD.</p> Tricia L. Larose, Pål Sætrom, Marit P. Martinussen, Håkon Skogseth, Torkjel M. Sandanger, Ghislaine Scelo, Cliona M. McHale, Geir W. Jacobsen, Martyn T. Smith ##submission.copyrightStatement## Thu, 05 Sep 2019 09:16:45 +0200 Sample selection and reasons for non-participation in the PRedictors and Outcomes of incident FRACtures (PROFRAC) study <p><em>Background.</em> Fragility fractures, associated with osteoporosis, are an escalating public health problem. We aim to describe sample selection, recruitment methods and reasons for non-participation in The PRedictors and Outcomes of incident FRACtures (PROFRAC) study. <br><em>Design and Methods.</em> Barwon Statistical Division residents aged 20+ years, with a radiologically-confirmed fracture between June 1st 2012 and May 31st 2013, were eligible. Individuals identified as fracture cases were invited by mail to complete a questionnaire. Reasons for non-participation were documented. Logistic regression techniques were used to determine odds ratios for participation and non-participation reasons. <br><em>Results.</em> A total of 1,458 of 2,155 (67.7%) adults with fracture (48.7% men) participated. Individuals were excluded due to inability to give informed consent, death, no knowledge of fracture, or inability to be contacted. The odds of participation decreased with age (OR 0.99, 95%CI 0.99-0.99, P=0.011) and increased among specific fracture groups [clavicle/scapula (OR 2.50, 1.30-4.68, P=0.006), forearm/humerus (OR 2.00, 1.22-3.27, P=0.006), wrist (OR 2.08, 1.31-0.32, P=0.002), hip (OR 2.12, 1.20-3.75, P=0.009), ankle (OR 1.85, 1.20-2.87, P=0.001), compared to face/skull fractures]. The odds of reporting disinterest, time constraints or personal reasons as the reason for non-participation decreased with age, whereas the odds of reporting frailty, language-related issues or illness as the reason for non-participation increased with of age [disinterest (OR 0.98, 0.97-0.98, P&lt;0.001), time constraints (OR 0.97, 0.96-0.98, P&lt;0.001), personal reasons (OR 0.98, 0.97-0.99, P=0.007), frailty (OR 1.12, 1.09- 1.15, P&lt;0.001), language-related issues (OR 1.02, 1.01-1.04, P&lt;0.001), illness (OR 1.03, 1.02-1.05, P&lt;0.001)]. <br><em>Conclusions.</em> Understanding drivers of research participation can inform study design to achieve optimal participation in health research.</p> Amanda L. Stuart, Julie A. Pasco, Sharon L. Brennan-Olsen, Michael Berk, Amelia G. Betson, Katherine E. Bennett, Elizabeth N. Timney, Lana J. Williams ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 May 2019 09:54:50 +0200 Migrants' health: Building migrant-sensitive health systems <p>Not available</p> Simone Villa, Mario Carlo Raviglione ##submission.copyrightStatement## Fri, 03 May 2019 09:51:44 +0200 Understanding beverage taxation: Perspective on the Philadelphia Beverage Tax’s novel approach <p>Despite the growing global trend of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) taxes for their potential as an untapped source of revenue and as a public health boon, these legislative efforts remain controversial. Multiple articles have reviewed this trend in recent years from modeling of long-term impacts to short-term empirical studies, yet most comprehensive, long-term health impact assessments remain forthcoming. These multi-faceted efficacy studies combined with case-based assessments of the policy process, descriptive pieces highlighting unique features of the policy and reflective perspectives targeting unanswered questions create a comprehensive body of literature to help inform present and future legislative efforts. The passage of the Philadelphia Beverage tax required a mix of political entrepreneurs, timing and context; while uniquely employing a nonpublic health frame, specific earmarking and a broadened scope with the inclusion of diet beverages. This perspective on the Philadelphia Beverage Tax will describe the passage and novel features of the Philadelphia Beverage Tax with a discussion of the ethical questions unique to this case.</p> Ryan M. Kane, Vasanti S. Malik ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 15:17:37 +0200 Changing trends in adolescent alcohol use among Czech school-aged children from 1994 to 2014 <p><em>Background:</em> For an efficient planning of public health policy, the regular monitoring over health-related behaviors among vulnerable population groups is necessary. The aim of this study is to examine the temporal trends in alcohol use among the Czech adolescent population. <br><em>Design and methods:</em> Data from the Health Behaviour in Schoolaged Children (HBSC) project conducted in Czechia from 1994 to 2014 were used. Adolescent alcohol use was assessed via two indicators: i) weekly alcohol use (beer, wine, and/or spirit), ii) repeated lifetime drunkenness (having been drunk on two or more occasions in life). Trends in alcohol use were modelled separately for boys and girls. Binary logistic regression was conducted with survey period as an independent predictor of the alcohol indicator. <br><em>Results:</em> There were significant changes in adolescent alcohol use since 1994. Between 1994 and 2010, there was a gradual upward in the prevalence. However, in the recent period of 2014, an unprecedented drop in alcohol use was recorded. <br><em>Conclusions:</em> Despite the significant drop in the prevalence of alcohol use among the Czech youth in recent years, alcohol drinking in adolescence remains an important challenge for the national health policy. Further research will show whether these changes in adolescent health-related behavior are of a temporary or a permanent nature.</p> Ladislav Kážmér, Ladislav Csémy ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 13:27:14 +0200 Where else would I look for it? A five-country qualitative study on purposes, strategies, and consequences of online health information seeking <p><em>Background.</em> Online health information (OHI) is widely available and consulted by many people in Western countries to gain health advice. The main goal of the present study is to provide a detailed account of the experiences among people from various demographic backgrounds living in high-income countries, who have used OHI. <br><em>Design and methods</em>. Thematic analysis of 165 qualitative semi-structured interviews conducted among OHI users residing in Australia, Israel, the Netherlands, Norway, and Switzerland was performed. <br><em>Results.</em> The lived experience of people using OHI seem not to differ across countries. The interviews show that searches for OHI are motivated from curiosity, sharing of experiences, or affirmation for actions already taken. Most people find it difficult to appraise the information, leading them to cross-check sources or discuss OHI with others. OHI seems to impact mostly some specific types of health behaviors, such as changes in diet or physical activity, while it only plays a complementary role for more serious health concerns. Participants often check OHI before seeing their GP, but are reluctant to discuss online content with health care personnel due to expected negative reception. <br><em>Conclusions.</em> This study adds to the body of knowledge on eHealth literacy by demonstrating how OHI affects overall health behavior, strengthens patients’ ability to understand, live with, and prepare themselves for diverse health challenges. The increasing digitalization of health communication and health care calls for further research on digital divides and patient-professional relations. Health care professionals should acknowledge OHI seeking and engage in discussions with patients to enable them to appreciate OHI, and to support shared decision making in health care. The professionals can utilize patient’s desire to learn as a resource for health prevention, promotion or treatment, and empowerment.</p> Nicola Diviani, Eva Haukeland Fredriksen, Corine S. Meppelink, Judy Mullan, Warren Rich, Tobba Therkildsen Sudmann ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 15 Apr 2019 13:00:38 +0200 Care of acute conditions and chronic diseases in Canada and the United States: Rapid systematic review and meta-analysis <p>This study tested the hypothesis that socioeconomically vulnerable Canadians with diverse acute conditions or chronic diseases have health care access and survival advantages over their&nbsp;counterparts in the USA. A rapid systematic review retrieved 25 studies (34 independent cohorts) published between 2003 and 2018. They were synthesized with a streamlined meta-analysis. Very low-income Canadian patients were consistently and highly advantaged in terms of health care access and survival compared with their counterparts in the USA who lived in poverty and/or were uninsured or underinsured. In aggregate and controlling for specific conditions or diseases and typically 4 to 9 comorbid factors or biomarkers, Canadians’ chances of receiving better health care were estimated to be 36% greater than their American counterparts (RR=1.36, 95% CI 1.35-1.37). This estimate was significantly larger than that based on general patient or non-vulnerable&nbsp;population comparisons (RR=1.09, 95% CI 1.08-1.10). Contrary to prevalent political rhetoric, three studies observed that Americans experience more than twice the risk of long waits for breast or colon cancer care or of dying while they wait for an organ transplant (RR=2.36, 95% CI 2.09-2.66). These findings were replicated across externally valid national studies and more internally valid, metropolitan or provincial/state comparisons. Socioeconomically vulnerable Canadians are consistently and highly advantaged on health care access and outcomes compared to their American counterparts. Less vulnerable comparisons found more modest Canadian advantages. The Affordable Care Act ought to be fully supported including the expansion of Medicaid across all states.&nbsp;Canada’s single payer system ought to be maintained and strengthened, but not through privatization.</p> Keren M. Escobar, Dorian Murariu, Sharon Munro, Kevin M. Gorey ##submission.copyrightStatement## Mon, 11 Mar 2019 13:23:02 +0100